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Adaptation - sounds like one of those scary science words that teachers use a lot to confuse you! Adaptation means "special powers". Like Spiderman has a web to save himself!
For example people are not adapted to swimming under water for a long time. Humans take a tank of oxygen with them to go swimming deep underwater. A tadpole lives under water - but how does it breathe? The tadpole has special powers - it has gills that help him breathe under water. All amphibians can breathe through their skin which is why they need to keep damp. The human diver also wears flippers to help them swim better - like dolphins?
It was a very clever scientist called Charles Darwin that first thought about adaptation. From a young age he was interested in science and exploring. Charles was 22 years old when he was invited to join a voyage round the world. H.M.S. Beagle was a ship responsible for travelling the globe, making maps of coastlines. This voyage took Charles to many interesting places where he could study even more animals. Probably the most famous of his visits was his journey to the Galapagos Islands. It was here that Charles saw lots of different birds called Finches. The strange thing he noticed was that on different islands the birds looked similar to other finches, but they were also different. He realised that the birds had changed, perhaps over only a few decades (remember that birds breed every year). The different types of finches had different beaks so that they could eat different food! Different foods on the different Islands meant that the birds could survive using their special power "tool" - its BILL!
There is so much to find out about Charles Darwin - here are some links.
Charles Darwin lived 200 years ago and it is only in the last 40 years that Charles Darwin's has been proved to be correct, because these days we have so much more technology e.g. DNA testing and finding the date of fossils.
Here is the statue of Charles Darwin at the Natural History museum in London.